The retina is the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of our eye. Light rays are focused onto the retina through our cornea, pupil and lens. The retina converts the light rays into impulses that travel through the optic nerve to our brain, where they are interpreted as the images we see.
Retinal detachment occurs when the retina separates from the outer layers of the eye. If not treated early, retinal detachment may lead to partial or complete loss of vision. Retinal detachment usually occurs after tears develop in the retina (Fluid passes through these openings and separates the retina from the other layers of the eye.
The most common cause of vision loss in diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by increasing levels of sugar in the blood. In the long-term, this condition mainly affects kidneys, the nerves in the limbs and the eyes. Diabetes, particularly in the nerve tissue of the eye (retina), affects the capillary cells and impairs their functioning, causing vision loss. Retinal damage due to diabetes is called diabetic retinopathy.
People with diabetes, whether young or older, should have their eyes checked for early detection of diabetic retinopathy. In diabetes, even when the retina is normal, an eye examination is recommended annually. Once retinopathy developed, the patient should be kept under observation for 3-4 months, during which time treatment should be applied to decrease blood sugar level.
Age-related macular damage, called macular degeneration, is retinal damage occurring in the center of vision. It is an eye disease quite common in the over 55 years’ old population and can lead to blindness.Vision gradually decreases over time and the center of the field of vision becomes dark as a black spot. Although a complete blindness does not occur around the black spot, the condition is adversely affecting the patient’s life. Because in the past there were no therapies were available, and as a result of the developments in the medical world over the years, since 2000 this disease has at first been treated by photodynamic therapy and later by intravitreal injection of anti -VEGF (vascular growth factor inhibitor).
Retinal vascular occlusion affects the eye, specifically the retina. An occlusion occurs when one of the veins or arteries carrying blood to or from the retina becomes blocked or contains a blood clot. The blockage could occur in the main vein or main artery. Blockages could also occur in the branch of veins and arteries throughout the retina.
A blockage in the vein or artery of the retina can cause blood or other fluids to build up and inhibit the retina’s ability to filter light properly. When light is blocked or fluids are present, sudden loss of vision can occur. The severity of vision loss may be dependent upon where the blockage or clot occurred. Blockages in the main vein or artery are often more serious than blockages in the branch veins or arteries.